Pharma Latin Abbreviations
Abbreviation | Meaning | Latin |
ad.lib. | freely as wanted | ad libitum |
aq. | water | aqua |
b.i.d. | twice a day | bis in die |
cap. | capsule | capula |
c with bar on top | with | cum |
div. | divide | divide |
eq.pts. | equal parts | equalis partis |
gtt. | a drop | gutta |
h. | hour | hora |
no. | number | numero |
O. | pint | octarius |
p.r.n. | as occasion requires | pro re nata |
q.s. | a sufficient quantity | quantum sufficiat |
q4h | every 4 hours | quaque 4 hora |
q6h | every 6 hours | quaque 6 hora |
q1d | every day | quaque 1 die |
q1w | every week | |
q.i.d. | four times a day | quater in die |
s.i.d. | once a day | semel in die |
Sig., S. | write on the label | signa |
stat. | immediately | statim |
tab. | a tablet | tabella |
t.i.d. | three times a day | ter in die |
Weights and measures used in prescribing and toxicology
The Metric System | |
Weight | |
1 picogram (pg) | 10^{-12} gram |
1000 picograms | 1 nanogram (ng) or 10^{-9} gram |
1000 nanograms | 1 microgram (ug) or 10^{-6} gram |
1000 micrograms | 1 milligram (mg) or 10^{-3} gram |
1000 milligrams | 1 gram (g) |
1000 grams | 1 kilogram (kg) |
Volume | |
1000 milliliters (ml) | 1 liter (L) |
Be
able to interconvert all of these values Prefixes for volumes correspond to those for weight. |
IMPORTANT: Know that 1 part
per million (ppm) is a frequently used term in toxicology and drug
residue discussions. For example, the following are 1 ppm: 1 mg / kg, 1 mcg/g. An analogy is "Percent" that represents 1 part per hundred, i.e., 1 g/100 g = 1% w/w. The expression "w/w" indicates that the amount of both substances is on a weight basis. It is assumed that ppm is w/w unless otherwise specified. |
The Apothecaries' System | |
Weight | |
20 grains (gr) | 1 scruple ( ) |
3 scruples | 1 dram( ) = 60 grains |
8 drams | 1 ounce ( ) = 480 grains |
Volume | |
60 minims (m) | 1 fluid dram ( ) |
8 fluid drams | 1 fluid ounce ( ) |
16 fluid ounces | 1 pint (O.) |
Know eqivalents in bold faced typed |
Approximate | Exact | |
1 milligram | 1/60 grain | 1/65 grain |
1 gram | 15 grains | 15.432 grains |
1 kilogram | 2.2 pounds* | 2.2 pounds* |
1 milliliter | 15 minims | 16.23 minims |
1 liter | 1 quart | 1.06 quarts or 33.8 fluid ounces |
1 grain | 60 milligrams | 65 milligrams |
1 dram | 4 grams | 3.88 grams |
1 ounce | 30 grams | 31.1 grams |
1 pound* | 450 grams | 454 grams |
1 minim | 0.06 milliliter | 0.062 milliliter |
1 fluid dram | 4 milliliters | 3.7 milliliters |
1 fluid ounce | 30 milliliters | 29.57 milliliters |
1 pint | 500 milliliters | 473 milliliters |
1 quart | 1000 milliters | 946 milliliters |
1 drop | 1 minim | |
1 teaspoonful | 5 milliliters | |
1 dessertspoonful | 8 milliliters | |
1 tablespoonful | 15 milliliters | |
Know
equivalents in bold faced type. Note: Where possible, use suitable units rather than decimal fractions, e.g., 10 mg not 0.010 g. When a decimal fraction is used the decimal point must be preceded by a zero, e.g., 0.5 not .5. * = avoirdupois pound (the one used in the USA!) |
Conversion factors for obtaining approximate equivalents
To convert | To | Multiply by |
gr/lb | mg/lb | 60 |
gr/lb | mg/kg | 143 |
mg/lb | gr/lb | 0.015 |
mg/lb | mg/kg | 2.2 |
mg/kg | gr/lb | 0.007 |
mg/kg | mg/lb | 0.45 |
Know conversions in bold typeface |